ChE 447:
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Optics 443/Mat. Science 471:
Optical
Fabrication and
Testing

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ChE 447 -
Optics and
Liquid Crystals
for Chemical
Engineers
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CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF LC TECHNOLOGY

1.1 BASIC LIQUID CRYSTAL ELEMENTS 1.1
  1.1.1 The Cell 1.1
  1.1.2 The Liquid Crystal 1.2
    order parameter 1.6
  1.1.3 Surface Coatings and Treatments 1.9
    1) lc alignment 1.9
    2) transparent, conductive coatings 1.10
    3) optical coatings 1.11
1.2 BASIC LIQUID CRYSTAL EFFECTS AND DEVICE COMPONENTS 1.11
  1.2.1 Polarization Independent Devices 1.11
    1) circular polarizer 1.11
    2) temperature sensor 1.12
    3) paints/pigments 1.12
    4) displays 1.13
    5)lc/polymer composite devices 1.13
  1.2.2 Polarization Dependent Devices 1.14
    1) notch filter 1.14
    2) laser beam apodizer 1.14
    3) optical isolator 1.15
    4) polarizing beamsplitter 1.15
    5) wave plates 1.16
    6) electrically controlled birefringence 1.17
    7) guest-host effect 1.18
1.3 OTHER ELEMENTS OF OPTICAL SYSTEMS USING LIQUID CRYSTALS 1.19
  1.3.1 Sources 1.19
    sun (photometry) 1.19
    lamps and backlights 1.21
    light emitting diodes 1.22
    lasers 1.23
    semiconductor lasers 1.23
    solid state doped insulator lasers 1.24
  1.3.2 (NonLC) Optical Components 1.26
    windows 1.26
    lenses 1.27
    prisms 1.27
    diffraction gratings 1.28
    linear polarizers 1.29
    wave plates 1.29
    mirrors 1.29
  1.3.3 Detectors 1.30
    thermal (nonquantum) 1.30
    pyroelectric 1.30
    photon (quantum) 1.31
    charge coupled and injection devices 1.32
    the eye and color (CID chromaticity diagram) 1.33

CHAPTER 2: LIGHT PROPAGATION AND OPTICAL MATERIALS

2.1 PROPERTIES OF LIGHT 2.1
  2.1.1 Wavelength 2.1
  2.1.2 Time Duration 2.1
  2.1.3 Units of Measure 2.1
2.2 LIGHT TRANSMISSION-PLANE SURFACES 2.2
  2.2.1 Refractive Index and Optical Path 2.2
  2.2.2 Law of Reflection and Law of Refraction-Snell's Law 2.2
  2.2.3 Color Dispersion in Glass 2.3
  2.2.4 Critical Angle and Total Reflection 2.3
    refractometers 2.4
  2.2.5 Spherical Surfaces 2.4
  2.2.6 Thin Lens Formulas 2.5
2.3 ABSORPTION, REFLECTION, AND SCATTERING 2.7
  2.3.1 Reflection from a Transparent Dielectric Surface 2.7
    p and s polarizations 2.8
    Brewster's angle 2.9 o pile of plates polarizer 2.9
  2.3.2 Dispersion of Refractive Index 2.10
    Cauchey's equation 2.10
    Sellmeier's equation 2.11
  2.3.3 Complex Refractive Index and Absorption 2.12
    Bouguer-Lambert Law and absorption coefficient 2.12
  2.3.4 The Case of Metals - Reflection 2.13
    extinction coefficient 2.13
  2.3.5 Scatter 2.14
    scatter coefficient 2.14
    Rayleigh scattering 2.14
    Mie scattering 2.16
  2.3.6 Total Transmission through a Plate in Air - Optical Density 2.16
  2.3.7 Bragg Reflection 2.18
2.4 OPTICAL MATERIALS 2.19
  2.4.1 Optical Glass 2.19
    Abbe value 2.19
    important glasses and compositions 2.20
    glasses for active matrix lc displays 2.21
    regions of transmittance 2.22
  2.4.2 Crystals 2.23
  2.4.3 Plastics 2.24
2.5 INTERFEROMETRY FOR FLATNESS 2.25
    Newton and Fizeau interferometers 2.25

CHAPTER 3: POLARIZED LIGHT AND CRYSTAL OPTICS

3.1 DEFINITION OF POLARIZED LIGHT 3.1
3.2 ALGEBRA OF POLARIZED LIGHT 3.3
  3.2.1 Simple Expressions for Polarized Light 3.3
  3.2.2 Stokes Vector 3.4
  3.2.3 Operational Definitions of Stokes Parameters 3.4
  3.2.4 Types of Applications for Stokes Vectors 3.6
    coherent vs. incoherent 3.6
    phase differences from a difference in pathlength (OPD) 3.8
  3.2.5 Jones Vector 3.9
  3.2.6 Fresnel-Arago Laws 3.12
3.3 POLARIZERS 3.12
  3.3.1 Terminology for a Single Polarizer 3.12
  3.3.2 Performance for a Pair of Identical Polarizers 3.13
    Law of Malus 3.13
    data sheet for Polaroid HN22 sheet polarizer 3.15
  3.3.3 Crystal Polarizers 3.16
    double refraction 3.16
    ordinary and extraordinary rays, birefringence 3.17
    Glan-Thompson prism polarizer (critical angle and TIR) 3.19
3.4 RETARDERS 3.20
    basic definitions  
  3.20 quarter - and half- wave plates 3.20
3.5 ANALYSIS OF POLARIZED LIGHT 3.21
3.6 MUELLER MATRICES AND MUELLER CALCULUS 3.22
  3.6.1 Mueller Matrix and Simple Examples 3.22
  3.6.2 Tabulation of Some Standard Mueller Matrices 3.24
3.7 OPTICAL ACTIVITY 3.28
3.8 KERR AND POCKELS ELECTRO-OPTIC EFFECTS 3.29

CHAPTER 4: BASIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

4.1 BASIC STRUCTURE OF PHASES 4.1
       
    nematics 4.1
    cholesterics 4.2
    smectics 4.2
4.2 TEXTURES OF PHASES AND SELECTED DEFECTS 4.3
  4.2.1 Elastic Constants 4.3
  4.2.2           Textures and Defects 4.4
    Schlieren textures and disclinations in nematics 4.4
    Grandjean-Cano disclinations in cholesterics 4.5
    monodomains and focal-conic texture 4.6
4.3 BASIC CHEMISTRY OF THERMOTROPIC LC'S 4.7
    enantiotropic and monotropic 4.7
    important commercial materials 4.7
    rings, terminal groups, bridging groups, lateral substituents 4.8
    eutectics and UV transmission 4.10
    table of important eutectics and constituents 4.10a
4.4 MISCELLANEOUS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 4.11
  4.4.1 Viscosity and Miesowicz coefficients 4.11
  4.4.2 Dielectric Anisotropy 4.12
    in nematics (contributions of permanent and induced dipoles) 4.12
    examples: temperature and frequency dependence 4.13
    in cholesterics - field induced transition to nematic phase 4.15
  4.4.3 Optical Anisotropy 4.16
    nematics - conoscopy 4.16
    homogeneous vs. homeotropic 4.17
    different definitions for ne, n0, and navg 4.17
    Dn and temperature 4.18
    cholesterics - index ellipsoid 4.18
    index relationship between nematic and cholesteric 4.19
    Abbe refractometer 4.19
    nematics in the IR 4.20
  4.4.4 Absorption 4.21
    relation between structure and absorption 4.21

CHAPTER 5: SURFACE ALIGNMENT

5.1 TILT AND ALIGNMENT (NEMATICS) 5.2
5.2 ALIGNMENT MECHANISMS (NEMATICS) 5.3
  5.2.1 Surface Tension 5.3
    Friedel-Creagh-Kmetz rule 5.3
  5.2.2 Alignment on Grooved Surfaces 5.4
  5.2.3 Anchoring Energies 5.5
5.3 CHOLESTERIC LC ALIGNMENT 5.7
  5.3.1 Planar or Grandjean Alignment 5.7
  5.3.2 Uniform Lying Helix Texture (ULH) 5.8
5.4 DETAILS OF RUBBING 5.9

CHAPTER 6: PASSIVE LIQUID CRYSTAL OPTICS

     
     
       
       
6.1 WAVEPLATES 6.1
  6.1.1 Properties Comparison with Crystals 6.1
    zero and multiple order 6.1
  6.1.2 Design/Fab of LC Waveplates for OMEGA 6.3
  6.1.3 Polymer LC Waveplate 6.5
    a Soleil compensator 6.6
  6.1.4 Prism LC Polarizer 6.8
6.2 SELECTIVE REFLECTION 6.9
  6.2.1 Fergason's Treatise on Selective Reflection 6.10
    circular dichroism 6.10
    angular dependence 6.11
    pitch-peak wavelength relation 6.13
    handness of pure cholesteric compounds 6.14
    pitch-bandwidth relation 6.16
  6.2.2 J. C. Lee's Exact and Approximate expressions for Selective Reflection 6.17
    fluid thickness-reflectance amplitude relation 6.17
    specifying bandwidth 6.18
  6.2.3 Selective Reflection at Oblique Incidence 6.19
  6.2.4 Pitch Gradients and broadband reflection 6.20
  6.2.5 Design / Fab of CLC Polarizer/Isolator for OMEGA 6.21
  6.2.6 Laser-Blocking Notch Filter 6.23
  6.2.7 Laser Beam Apodizer (Soft Aperture) 6.24
  6.2.8 LC Beamsplitter 6.26
  6.2.9 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Art (to be done) 6.27
  6.2.10 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Flakes (to be done) 6.27
  6.2.11 Cholesteric Liquid Crystals in Thermography (to be done) 6.27
6.3 OPTICAL ROTATORY POWER 6.27

CHAPTER 7: ELECTRO-OPTIC LIQUID CRYSTAL EFFECTS AND DEVICES

7.1 POLARIZATION-INDEPENDENT EFFECTS AND DEVICES 7.1
  7.1.1 LC / Polymer Composites 7.1
    1) projection displays 7.3
    2) direct view displays 7.4
    3) smart windows 7.4
    4) polarizer on demand 7.5
    5) polymer-dispersed chiral lc color display 7.6
    6) polymer-stabilized cholesteric textures 7.7
    7) holographic polymer-dispersed reflective displays 7.8
  7.1.2 Pitch Dilation / Contraction 7.9
  7.1.3 Cholesteric-Nematic (CN) Phase Change: White-Taylor Display 7.12
7.2 POLARIZATION-DEPENDENT EFFECTS AND DEVICES 7.13
  7.2.1 Twisted Nematic (TN) Effect 7.13
    A) wave guiding in TN devices 7.14
    B) voltage threshold 7.15
    C) response time and contrast 7.16
    D) supertwisted nematic (STN) displays 7.17
    E) passive matrix displays and addressing 7.17
    F) active matrix displays 7.18
    G) backlights 7.21
    H) optical compensators 7.22
  7.2.2 Electrically Controlled Birefringence (ECB) 7.23
    A) parallel aligned (PA) cells 7.23
    B) bend-aligned (surface-mode, or p) cells 7.24
  7.2.3 Selected Devices and Applications 7.25
    A) projection displays 7.25
    B) Spatial light modulator (SLM) - light valve 7.26
    C) light deflector - total internal reflection (TIR) switch 7.28
    D) variable focal length LC lens 7.29
    E) tunable LC birefringent filter 7.30
    F) free-space optical interconnect w/ LC µprism arrays 7.33

CHAPTER 8: FERROELECTRIC LIQUID CRYSTALS: EFFECTS / DEVICES

8.1 PHASES AND STRUCTURES tbd
8.2 UNIQUE ISSUES OF MOLECULAR ALIGNMENT tbd
8.3 PROPERTIES AND DEVICES tbd
  8.3.1 IR Shutter/Chopper tbd
  8.3.2 TIR Switch tbd
  8.3.3 Digital Scanner tbd

CHAPTER 9: NONLINEAR OPTICAL EFFECTS AND LC DEVICES

9.1 BASICS OF c2 and c3 tbd
  9.1.1 Physics tbd
  9.1.2 Response Time tbd
  9.1.3 LC Materials Comparisons tbd
9.2 EFFECTS tbd
  9.2.1 Fast tbd
    Frequency Conversion tbd
    Material Characterization by Frequency Mixing tbd
  9.2.2 Slow tbd
9.3 THE ISSUE OF LASER DAMAGE tbd
9.4 DEVICES tbd
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